The chicken vent is called the cloaca. The cloaca size is dependent on the breed and size of the chicken.
When a hen lays an egg the oviduct is pushed through the cloaca and retracts after the egg is laid. If it doesn't retract and a part of the oviduct remains outside the body then prolapse occurs. Bloody tissue can be seen protruding from the vent causing what is known as a bloody vent in chickens. This often occurs in hens that are overweight, older or very young.
This isn't a frequent occurrence but when it does happen it can be difficult to cure because as the hen continues to lay the oviduct comes out of the cloaca again and again. If the hen is not separated from the flock the other chickens will pick at the vent possibly causing death.
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